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Clothes Guide 2

 

 

Discover Your Clothes 2/4

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CROTCH RIVET

Reinforcing rivet located at the base of the button fly, common in early jeans. Its demise was the eventual result of complaints received by Levi Strauss & Co. When worn around a stove or fire, the rivet heated up, causing discomfort, to say the least, to the wearer. But it wasn't until Walter Haas Sr., then chairman of the company and a descendent of Levi Strauss himself, wore the jeans on a camping trip in 1941 and crouched a bit too close to the campfire that the offending rivet was removed from the 501.

CRUSHED DENIM

A textured effect achieved through a special fabric construction and wet processing. The denim is woven with an overtwisted weft yam; when the garment is washed, the yam "shrinks," acquiring a goffre look that is further enhanced by bleaching and stonewashing.

CUT-OFF'S

Denim jeans, usually tom or ripped, that are turned into shorts by cutting off the pants legs. The popularity of shredded and tom jeans, however, has saved many pairs that would have become cut-offs.

DAMASK

A figured fabric made with one warp and one weft in which, generally, wart-satin and weft-sateen weaves may be sometime introduced.

DENIER

Traditionally a 3/1 warp-faced twill fabric made from yarn-dyed warp and undyed weft yarn. More recently, other weaves have been used in lighter construction.

DENIM

The stuff that jeans, and dreams, are made of. A sturdy cotton twill fabric characterized by a 3x I warpfaced weave, traditionally made with indigo-dyed yarn for the warp and natural yam for the weft. First known as a workwear fabric, it later became popular as leisure wear and eventually was even used by high-fashion designers. In recent years the versatile fabric has been bleached, stonewashed, acid-washed, over dyed and destroyed. It has been offered in black, ecru, colored and stretch varieties. Originally called serge de Nimes, for the French city in which it was produced, denim is now manufactured in specialized mills around the world; the U.S. is its largest producer. Traditionally a 3/1 warp-faced twill fabric made from yarn-dyed warp and undyed weft yarn. More recently, other weaves have been used in lighter construction.

DENSITY

Low, Medium, High and even Super High Density refer to the number of yams that make up the weave and result in a tighter or looser fabric construction. High density denim weaves became more sought after in the early '90s.

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DESTROYED

A wet process that shreds jeans to pieces, for a tough effect. Taken to its extreme at the designer level by British Katharine Hamnett, whose slashed jeans caused a sensation when they hit the runway in 1985.

DIPS

Historically, the number of times the yam is dipped into the indigo dye bath, averaging 6 to 8, with a maximum of 12 to 16. Later also achieved with changes in the concentration of the indigo dye.

DIRTY BLUE

Indigo denim that when washed shows a green or beige tint, either from dyeing, tinting in the finishing process or a garment treatment that discolors the fabric. Also Backwater Blue, Vegetable Blue, Fuzzy Blue.

DO-IT-YOURSELF JEANS

Before stonewashing went industrial, jeans lovers had home-made versions. Among them: Leave jeans in a running stream, held down by rocks, for one month; bathe in salt water, then rub wet sand over jeans thighs, bottoms and crotch; or, for real men, rub crotch with a stone (carefully) and wear jeans very tight.

DOESKIN FABRIC

A five-end satin or other warp-faced fabric with dress-face finish.

DOUBLE ARCUATE

The double stitched pattern on the back pockets of Levi's jeans, symbolizing the mythical American eagle. Added in 1873 and trademarked in 1943, the arcuate stitching has been in use longer than any other U.S. apparel trademark. During World 11, when distribution of Levi's 50]s was limited to factory workers and the military, the War Bureau required that the jeans be stripped of any details considered "superfluous" and the arcuate pattern was painted on to save thread. In 1947, it was again stitched on.

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DOUBLE-DYED DENIM

Historically, denim made from warp yarn that is dipped into the indigo dye bath 12 to 16 times instead of the standard 6 to 8. Results in a deeper, richer, brighter blue color. Later also achieved through changes in the indigo concentration.

DRAWING

Step in denim making in which a predetermined number of strands of cotton fiber "slivers" are passed through a series of drafting rolls. These rolls combine and draft them into a single, more uniform strand. The procedure is repeated to further increase uniformity before spinning the sliver into yarn.

DUFFEL

A heavy low-grade fabric, napped on both side made from woollen yarn.

DUNGAREE

A 3/1 or 2/1 twill fabric used for overalls. A type of denim pants similar to jeans, though generally baggier due to their workwear origins. Dungaree was the name given to trousers worn by sailors that were cut from "dungri," a coarse denim cloth made in India. It came to be used synonymously with jeans in the '50s and '60s, then all but disappeared, though some U.S. jeans makers, such as Ralph Lauren, seeking a workwear authenticity, refer to their jeans as dungarees. In Europe, the term dungarees is more commonly used as a synonym for the bib 'n' brace.

DYEING PROCESS

Step in denim making in which the natural cotton warp yam is dipped into a number of indigo dye baths (typically 6 to 8). After each dip the yam is oxidized (skying), which gradually turns the color from yellow to green to blue. The yarn is then rinsed several times to remove excess dyestuff.

EASY

Fit Or comfort fit. A very popular style, with wide straight legs and a wide waistline cinched by a belt.

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ECO-DENIM

The use of environmentally friendly dyeing and recycling techniques in the production of denim. At the end of the dyeing process, for example, the remains of the indigo substance are filtered and recycled for other dye baths, instead of being discarded into waterways.

ECRU

Undyed denim, the natural shade of the cotton yarn, now considered an alternative basic color for jeans, worn all year round.

ELASTAN

Man-made elastic fibers that add stretch to denim for a sexy, comfortable fit. Often confused with Lycra, which is a type of elastan registered and marketed by the Du Pont de Nemours fiber company.

ELASTENIM

Trademark of the Lauffenmiihle company for a denim that was elasticized lengthwise, or in the warp, which came on the market in 1980. The indigo-dyed cotton fabric containing three percent Lycra was one of the first generation of stretch denims, but was later forced off the market by more cost-effective stretch denims elasticized in the weft.

ELASTICITY

The in-built tendency of the fabric to recover after stretching.

ENZYME WASH

Enzymes are organic substances that quicken natural reactions (the best known are that those accelerate food digestion). Having been used in such divergent fields as medical research and laundry detergent, they are now also used in the jeanswear industry as an alternative to stonewashing. The results are the same, but enzyme washing has several advantages: It's environmentally friendly because the substances are organic; at the end of the process the jeans are softer because enzymes have "digested" the fabric, eating its cellulose; and their use requires less labor because they do the whole job themselves (a final rinsing is enough to have pants ready to be sold).

FADED

Denim that's a lighter shade of blue, either naturally through exposure and repeated washings, or induced through stonewashing or bleaching.

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FASTNESS

The color's resistance to washing, sunlight and abrasion. Indigo has poor color fastness because it fades as a result of each of these.

FESTAMENES

A loosely woven 2x2 twill worsted dress fabric with a rough finish.

FELT

A textile fabric characterized by the entangled condition of many or all of its component fibers.

FINISHES

Final treatment applied to fabrics or garments, in the form of wetprocessing.

FINISHING

Step in denim production in which the cloth is passed between rolls that remove lint and raise loose fibers. Next, the cloth passes through a gas flame or "singer" that bums the loose fibers off. It is then run through a vat of liquid finish solution and afterwards through squeeze rolls to remove excess liquid. A series of steam cans dries the fabric while setting the widths.

FIT

A major determining factor when it comes to buying a pair of jeans. Manufacturers now offer in-between sizes and variable lengths (short, medium, satisfaction. Good fit is an especially important requirement in selling to girls (and juniors).

FIVE-POCKET

The basic jean. A there are five pockets-two in the front and a coin pocket inside the right front pocket. Originally, the fifth pocket was on the thigh, as a place to keep tools. A "five-pocket" jean is a straight, reliable, tough-looking garment, originally for guys, now also for girls.

FLAG

The small but very important signature label normally sewn to the side of the back patch pocket. Some, like Closed, have put it on the front, by the zipper, and made a fortune. Also known as the tab.

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FLANNEL

An all wool fabric of plain or twill weave with a soft handle.

FLY LABEL

Method of branding jeans, used by Closed, Pepe and others, in which a woven label is sewn to the fly of the jeans.

FOULARD

A light-weight fabric, frequently printed, originally of silk, and of 2/2 twill weave.

FRENCH CUT

Very tight, sexy looking jeans, especially for girls. Also called "second skin."

FRINGED

Denim with unstitched edges at hems or seams, which, after repeated washings, looks fringed. Used to give a rugged, very worn-out aspect to jeans and jackets.

FUSTIAN

A hard-wearing type of clothing fabric containing a large amount of weft yarn. Used to describe a class of heavily wefted fabrics.

GARMENT-DYED

Process in which the garment is stocked in an ecru or bleached colour, then instant-dyed in a variety of shades, depending on the market requests and fashion's whims. The technique also gives the garment a special, characteristic look.

GEORGETTE

A fine, light-weight, open-texture fabric, usually in a plain weave, made from crepe yarns.

GINGHAM

A plane-weave, light-weight cotton fabric, approximately square in construction, in which dyed yarns, or white dyed yarns, form small checks or, less usually, narrow stripes.

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GOSSYPIUM

The generic name of the cotton plant.

GREY FILLING

Weft, or filling, yarn that is produced from a blend of ecru and dyed cotton fiber. Originally conceived as a way to recycle discards from dyed warp yarns, and therefore save money, grey filling is being adopted by some manufacturers today as part of the revival of original looks, particularly in lightweight denims (7 to I I oz.).

HAND

The feel or touch of a fabric, inherent to its contents or achieved through washes and finishes.

HANG TAG

In addition to the label and back pocket flasher, hang tags are another way for a jeans brand to communicate its features and philosophy to the consumer. Though done in a variety of sizes and shapes, and inspired by a wide range of themes, they all have a common characteristic-they "hang" from the garment.

HARVARD

A shirting cloth with a 2/2 twill weave, usually with a colored warp and a white weft. These cloths are often ornamented by stripes or white or colored threads or by simple weave effects or by both.

HEAVYWEIGHT DENIM

Denim fabric over 14 oz.

HEMP

A fine, light-colored, lustrous, and strong bast fiber, obtained from the hemp plant.

HESSIAN

A plain cloth made from single yarns of approximately the same linear density in warp and weft, usually made from bast fibers, particularly just.

HIPHUGGERS

A style of jeans, very popular in the '60s and early '70s, that have a low-slung waist construction that literally "hugs" the hips.

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HOT PANTS

The shortest of shorts for covering the behind and little else. The style became the early '70s and made a comeback in the early ‘90s

HYPERWASHED

Fabric that has been washed repeatdly for an extremely faded and worn look.

INDIGO

The deep blue dye traditionally used in the production of denim. Known as the "living" color because it fades gradually and naturally with wear. First used over 4,000 years ago for dyeing wool, indigo was originally produced from the leaves of the Indigofera plant. Both China and India, the natural home of the plant, first cultivated and processed the dye commercially. At various times, it has been associated with poison and witchcraft, most likely because its introduction in Europe threatened the production of woad, a home-grown, but inferior, staple dyestuff. The English were the first to adopt indigo widely. In the New World, the crop was grown and marketed until the late 18th century, when the American Revolution curtailed the lucrative trade; by 1789 India was once again the chief source of supply. In 1878, the German chemist Adolf von Baeyer perfected the formula for synthetic indigo. Cleaner and more stable, it soon eclipsed traditional methods of production. Indigo lives on as the world's most popular dyestuff, with more than nine thousand tons produced annually. In addition to yarn- and piece-dyeing for jeanswear and other garments, it is frequently used in batik printing. Since the early '80s, it has also been used for an indigo-dyed knitting yarn.

JEANS

In the classic sense, jeans are casual pants made of heavyweight indigo denim, featuring five pockets, six rivets, contrast stitching, five to seven belt loops and a zip or button fly. Though interpreted in endless ways, their unique design remains instantly recognizable. Jeans' origins date to the mid-1800s in the American West, when workwear manufacturer Levi Strauss & Co. and tailor Jacob Davis together patented the use of rivets as reinforcement. But there's more to jeans than just their comfort, affordability and versatility.

JUTE

The fiber obtained from the bast layer of the plants Corchours capsularis and Corchorus olitorius.

LABEL

Item that brands or identifies a garment, bearing the logo and other pertinent information. A pair of jeans can have more than one label, each with a different communicative function, including the back pocket flasher, hang tag and leather tag. The word label is also often used as a term referring to the brand or line.

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