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Clothes Guide 3

 

 

Discover Your Clothes 3/4

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LEATHER TAG

Rectangular label made of real or imitation leather, normally sewn to the rear waistband of a pair of jeans, above the right hip pocket. The leather tag often bears the size and lot number of the jeans, as well as the brand logo.

LEFT-HAND

Term indicating the direction of the denim weave. This type has the diagonal twill line rising to the left, which provides a very soft texture after washing but which is also much more difficult to produce, since it requires more attention in the sanforization and finishing processes.

LENGTHS

Jeans lengths are measured along the inseam, from crotch to hem. The shortest commercial adult jeans leg is 20 inches, the longest can reach 38.

LOGO

Individually designed name or graphic symbol characteristic of each company or brand.

LOOM

Weaving apparatus that produces fabric by interlacing a series of vertical parallel threads (warp) with a series of horizontal parallel threads (filling or weft). The oldest American loom is the Draper shuttle loom, originally weaving a 75 cm width. The most modem one is the air jet (600 strokes a minute).

LYCRA

A trademark of the multinational fiber company Du Pont de Nemours, introduced in the early '60s. An elastan fiber originally launched for the swimwear and lingerie market, it came to be used in jersey, sportswear and jeanswear fabrics. Erroneously synonymous with stretch.

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MARBLE

Another word for acid wash. Some crushed denims, if strongly bleached, are also called marble.

MILLWASH

Term referring to denim fabric that is delivered already washed to cutters or garment manufacturers.

MOTHER COTTON

A mature cotton from the American South with a high tanin content that gives a vintage look when indigo-dyed. The fruits of this cotton become the "mother" of the next year's crop, hence the name.

NATURAL

A type of ring-ring denim, naturally uneven in warp and weft.

OPEN-END

An industrial, highly efficient type of yarn spinning technology that utilises turbine machinery. Faster and less expensive than the original ring-spun system, it produces denim fabrics that have a more regular, flatter appearance. Often referred to by the initials O.E.

ORGANIC BLUE

Name given to an indigo dye that has a slightly reddish tint. Was used by Levi's to make the Big E. The dyeing formula originally included actual corn syrup. Also known as Happy Days, Violet Blue, Heavy Blue.

ORIGINALS

Jeanswear's great American heritage-cult and collectors' items from the early years of the jeans

OUTSEAM

Opposite of inseam. The pants seam that runs along the outside of the leg, from waist to hem.

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OVERALLS

A loose, one-piece garment made of denim or canvas that incorporates jeans-style pants with a bib front and suspender straps. Popular both for its functionality and as fashion. In Europe, more commonly known as a bib 'n' brace or salopette, while the word overalls is used to designate a one-piece, long-sleeved work wear garment.

OVERDYEING

A process that can take many forms. The blue yarn can be overdyed black, known as black change blue. Blue or black denim can also be overdyed with contrasting brilliant colours, for unusual shade effects. Or indigo jeans can be bleached to neutral and then overdyed with a vivid bright color.

OVERTWISTED DENIM

Made from yarn that is over twisted, giving the fabric a particular crinkled surface.

OZ.

An abbreviation for ounces. Denim is weighed in oz. per square yard.

PAPERBAG WAIST

A very loose and large waistline that when cinched with a belt gives the appearance of a paper bag that has been gathered at the top.

PATCHWORK JEANS

Made from either recycled pieces of denim or with colorful patches of other fabrics. Normally a form of do-it-yourself customized jeans, they can also be produced on a commercial scale.

PEDAL PUSHER

Ankle-length womenswear jeans style with the distinctive "X" pockets in the front, invented by Marithe and Francois Girbaud for the Italian label Closed in 1980-81. It became world famous and widely copied.

PETROLEUM WASH

Denim finish developed in 1992 by the U.S. brand WilliWear. A left-hand denim is enzyme-washed until it has lost most of its color. It is then overdyed and put through a silicone wash, which gives it an oily coating, and, in turn, a super-soft, butter-like hand.

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PIQUE

    Warp knitted 

A plain-normally made with two guide bars, that shows pronounced cord effects in the warp direction.

    Woven 

A plain-weave fabric with sunken lines between rounded cords and having a plain-weave face.

PIECE-DYED

Term referring to the process of dyeing pieces of fabric, rather than the yarn.

PIGMENTS

A kind of dyestuff that coats the fabric. The color remains on the surface and easily washes away, fading. Pigments are available in a wide range of colors.

PINTO WASH DENIM

A product of Cone Mills, USA; said to be the first bleached denim. In 1969, in Greensboro, North Carolina, a hurricane flooded local Cone Mills plants and warehouses. Millions of yards of denim were soaked with water and had to be dried immediately to avoid mildewing. It seemed a catastrophe, but a Cone Mills merchandiser in the New York office came up with an idea: run the fabric irregularly through a solution to remove the dye and give the denim a faded and mottled appearance. Designers, manufacturers and young consumers all jumped on the new product, making Pinto Wash Denim an instant success.

PLACED

Term used to describe sanding that is concentrated in certain areas, such as the bottom, knees and pockets, to create a natural worn-out look. Also known as localised abrasion.

PLATED

A form of finishing that gives a stonewashed appearance to jeanswear using natural earth pigments. It looks real, but it's a trompe l'oeil.

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POCKET STITCHING

Common feature of jeans. The rear pockets are stitched in a decorative pattern, sometimes trademarked, which helps distinguish the brand. For a period in the '70s, elaborate pocket stitching, often in white as well as gold thread, was a dominant trend. In the '80s, with the return of basic style, pocket stitching also returned to a simpler look.

POLYESTER

A manufactured fabric composed of synthetic linear macromolecules having in the chain at least 85% (by mass) of an ester of a diol and benzene-1,4- dicarboxylic acid.

PRE-SHRUNK

The growing jeans industry's answer to the original Levi's concept of shrink-to-fit. In 1947, Blue Bell introduced the first Wrangler jeans, which were sanforised, or pre-shrunk, guaranteeing less than two percent further shrinkage. Other companies followed suit. In 1959, Levi Strauss offered the first pre-shrunk 50’s.

PRINTED DENIM

Denim that has been printed with a pattern-a batik, stripe or floral, for example- often in contrasting colors and aimed at a very young market.

QUARTER DIP

A shortened dyeing process normally used for chambray and lightweight denims, in which the number of indigo dips are reduced to two or four, instead of the usual six to eight, resulting in a lighter shade of blue.

QUICKSTONE

A classic denim from the early '80s by Burlington Denim. The 14 3/4 oz. all cotton, right-hand indigo fabric, designed to wash down fast, was first produced for stonewashing and is no longer made. It evolved into Burlington's style no. 3885, another 14 3/4 oz. denim that is used as a basic by jeans makers in the U.S.

RAPID SKYING

Patented oxidation process developed by Tessitura di Robecchetto Candiani in 1992 that speeds up the skying step of the indigo dyeing process and therefore shortens the indigo dyeing technique.

RED INDIGO

A special synthetic dyestuff that's a lighter shade of blue, originally used as an alternative to real indigo when there was a shortage of the natural dye. Had a peak period in the '60s, and resurfaced as a selling attraction in the '90s. Also known as Hydron Blue.

REVERSE DENIM

A novelty use of denim-turned inside out to give jeans a really different look.

RIGHT HAND

Denim's original weaving construction, in which the twill line rises diagonally to the right.

RING DENIM

A traditional type of denim fabric, revived in the late '80s and early '90s, using ring-spun yarn for the warp. Characterized by a softer hand and an uneven surface appearance.

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